A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion

The distribution of 214 species of neurotropic fungi in the world is discussed. The neurotropic fungi considered are divided in: 1) species with psilocybin’s indoles, or probably with these substances, 2) species with ibotenic acid, 3) ergot fungi, and 4) species used as sacred fungi but without any reliable chemical studies. In the first group are Psilocybe (116 species), Gymnopilus (13 species), Panaeolus (13 species), Copelandia (12 species), Hypholoma (6 species), Pluteus (6 species), Inocybe (6 species), Conocybe (4 species), Panaeolina (4 species), Gerronema (2 species) and Agrocybe, Galerina and Mycena (each with one species), although in several species of this group, mainly in the Panaeoloideous fungi, there are no chemical studies. In the second group are Amanita muscaria, A. pantherina and A. regalis; in the third group is Claviceps purpurea and allies: 5 species of Claviceps and 2 of Cordyceps, and in the fourth group are bolets (two genera with 8 species), Russula (6 species), and 5 species of gasteromycetes in 3 genera. Concerning the distribution of Psilocybe, the majority of the species are in the Austral hemisphere, or close to this, mainly in the subtropical humid forests, where reside the most important ethnic groups that use the neurotropic fungi, as native peoples in Mexico and New Guinea. Mexico has the highest number of neurotropic species of fungi, with 76 species, of which 44 belong to Psilocybe (39 % of the world). More than 450 bibliographic references were considered.


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