Objective: Electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees are a high-risk population for drug use and associated adverse effects. We examined trends in past-year drug use within this population to better inform prevention and harm reduction efforts.
Methods: Each summer from 2016 through 2019, we used time-space sampling to survey a cross-section of adults entering EDM parties at randomly selected nightclubs and at dance festivals in New York City. Ns ranged from 504 (2019) to 1,087 (2016). We estimated log-linear trends in past-year use of 16 different synthetic drugs or drug classes.
Results: Between 2016 and 2019, estimated past-year prevalence of use of ketamine increased from 5.9% to 15.3% (a 157.6% relative increase; P=.007), LSD use increased from 9.9% to 16.6% (a 67.7% relative increase, P<.001), powder cocaine use increased from 17.3% to 35.2% (a 103.5% relative increase, P<.001), and GHB use increased from 1.0% to 4.2% (a 311.8% relative increase; P=.002). Past-year use of ≥3 drugs increased from 12.7% to 20.5% (a 61.4% relative increase; P=.013); however, estimated past-year use of unknown powders decreased from 2.0% to 1.1% (a relative 44.7% decrease; P=.038) and ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use was stable across years (at 25.0-28.5%; P=.687).
Conclusions: Reports of powder cocaine, LSD, ketamine, and GHB are becoming more prevalent among EDM party attendees. Prevention and harm reduction efforts are needed to address increasing use. Research is also needed to examine whether increasing media coverage of medical use of ketamine and other psychedelics affects prevalence of recreational use.
The use of naturally occurring and synthetically derived compounds for their “psychedelic” effects has been a part of human culture for thousands of years. The basic pharmacology of the major synthetic psychedelic compounds (primarily lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD]-25) is described and reference is made to their potentially beneficial psychological effects. Adverse reactions, defined as dysphoric and/or maladaptive/dysfunctional responses to the use of these drugs, sometimes require careful clinical judgment in order to diagnose. These reactions can be effectively classified along a temporal continuum. Acute, short-lived reactions are often fairly benign, whereas chronic, unremitting courses carry a poor prognosis. Delayed, intermittent phenomena (“flashbacks”) and LSD-precipitated functional disorders that usually respond to treatment appropriate for the non-psychedelic-precipitated illnesses they resemble, round out this temporal means of classification. The question of organic brain damage as well as permanent changes in personality, attitudes, and creativity in patients and normals who have repeatedly ingested psychedelic drugs is controversial, but tends to point to subtle or nonsignificant changes. Future areas for study of the psychedelics’ pharmacological, psychological, and therapeutic effects are suggested.
Much of the history of pharmacology and therapeutics involves finding new uses for old drugs. The latest rediscovery is that of psychedelic drugs. Since they can cause profound distortions of perception and were once used as part of religious ceremonies, such research may seem unusual at this time.
Extensive LSD testing was conducted by the US Army at Edgewood Arsenal and other locations from 1955 to 1967. A number of different reports have been produced describing the health effects of this testing, including the Veterans Health Initiative Report in 2003. By and large, these reports gloss over and minimize the short and long-term side effects and complications of this testing. However, the reports themselves document frequent, severe complications of the LSD. These side effects were regarded by the Army as having been directly caused by the LSD exposure. In view of the current resurgence of interest in hallucinogens within psychiatry, the sanitized version of the effects of LSD exposure on US soldiers needs to be replaced with a more accurate account.
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is rarely encountered in clinical settings. It is described as a re-experiencing of some perceptual distortions induced while intoxicated and suggested to subsequently cause functional impairment or anxiety. Two forms exist: Type 1, which are brief “flashbacks,” and Type 2 claimed to be chronic, waxing, and waning over months to years. A review of HPPD is presented. In addition, data from a comprehensive survey of 20 subjects reporting Type-2 HPPD-like symptoms are presented and evaluated. Dissociative Symptoms are consistently associated with HPPD. Results of the survey suggest that HPPD is in most cases due to a subtle over-activation of predominantly neural visual pathways that worsens anxiety after ingestion of arousal-altering drugs, including non-hallucinogenic substances. Individual or family histories of anxiety and pre-drug use complaints of tinnitus, eye floaters, and concentration problems may predict vulnerability for HPPD. Future research should take a broader outlook as many perceptual symptoms reported were not first experienced while intoxicated and are partially associated with pre-existing psychiatric comorbidity.
We collected and reviewed studies in which neuropsychological tests were administered to users of LSD or other hallucinogens. Interpretation of the studies is limited by various confounding variables, such as subjects’ premorbid cognitive and personality function and prior use of other substances. At present, the literature tentatively suggests that there are few, if any, long-term neuropsychological deficits attributable to hallucinogen use. To better resolve this issue, however, it will be important to study larger samples of chronic, frequent hallucinogen users who have not often used other types of drugs.
‘Flashbacks’ following use of hallucinogenic drugs have been reported for decades; they are recognized in DSM-IV as ‘Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (Flashbacks)’, or HPPD. We located and analyzed 20 quantitative studies between 1955 and 2001 examining this phenomenon. However, many of these studies were performed before operational criteria for HPPD were published in DSM-III-R, so they are difficult to interpret in the light of current diagnostic criteria. Overall, current knowledge of HPPD remains very limited. In particular (1) the term ‘flashbacks’ is defined in so many ways that it is essentially valueless; (2) most studies provide too little information to judge how many cases could meet DSM-IV criteria for HPPD; and consequently (3) information about risk factors for HPPD, possible etiologic mechanisms, and potential treatment modalities must be interpreted with great caution. At present, HPPD appears to be a genuine but uncommon disorder, sometimes persisting for months or years after hallucinogen use and causing substantial morbidity. It is reported most commonly after illicit LSD use, but less commonly with LSD administered in research or treatment settings, or with use of other types of hallucinogens. There are case reports, but no randomized controlled trials, of successful treatment with neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, and clonidine. Although it may be difficult to collect large samples of HPPD cases, further studies are critically needed to augment the meager data presently available regarding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of HPPD.
Perceptions among adolescents regarding hallucinogens use are changing. Current trends show there are increasing emergency department presentations from use of these drugs.
Use of novel hallucinogens, such as 25I-NBOMe, is gaining popularity and can have serious medical complications.
Hallucinogen use may result in psychiatric disorders that may occur at time of use or afterward and may cause secondary psychotic, mood, or anxiety disorders. Limited data exist regarding treatment of these psychiatric disorders in adolescents, and evidence is extrapolated from adult studies. Benzodiazepines and behavioral techniques are recommended first-line treatments. Certain antipsychotics may worsen hallucinogen disorders and should be used with caution.
Psychedelics comprise drugs come from various pharmacological classes including 5-HT2A agonists, indirect 5-HT agonists, e.g., MDMA, NMDA antagonists and κ-opioid receptor agonists. There is resurgence in developing psychedelics to treat psychiatric disorders with high unmet clinical need. Many, but not all, psychedelics are schedule 1 controlled drugs (CDs), i.e., no approved medical use. For existing psychedelics in development, regulatory approval will require a move from schedule 1 to a CD schedule for drugs with medical use, i.e., schedules 2–5. Although abuse of the psychedelics is well documented, a systematic preclinical and clinical evaluation of the risks they pose in a medical-use setting does not exist. We describe the non-clinical tests required for a regulatory evaluation of abuse/dependence risks, i.e., drug-discrimination, intravenous self-administration and physical dependence liability. A synopsis of the existing data for the various types of psychedelics is provided and we describe our findings with psychedelic drugs in these models. FDA recently issued its guidance on abuse/dependence evaluation of drug-candidates (CDER/FDA, 2017). We critically review the guidance, discuss the impact this document will have on non-clinical abuse/dependence testing, and offer advice on how non-clinical abuse/dependence experiments can be designed to meet not only the expectations of FDA, but also other regulatory agencies. Finally, we offer views on how these non-clinical tests can be refined to provide more meaningful information to aid the assessment of the risks posed by CNS drug-candidates for abuse and physical dependence.
This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Psychedelics: New Doors, Altered Perceptions’.
Flashbacks are returns of imagery for extended periods after the immediate effect of hallucinogens has worn off. The most symptomatic form is recurrent intrusions of the same frightening image into awareness, without volitional control. The author compares flashbacks with other clinical phenomena; he believes that psychotherapy is helpful, especially if there is a focus on the traumatic and screening aspects of the imagery.